The manual on “Mechanical Ventilation” covers all aspects starting from the basic physiology to specialized techniques like high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Pediatric airways and oxygen delivery devices, ventilation in neonates and non-invasive ventilation in children are discussed in individual chapters. The importance of humidification and humidifying devices that are used in mechanical ventilation are also included in the manual. Disease-specific ventilation measures are also discussed. Importance is given to monitoring, with separate chapters devoted to interpretation of graphic displays and monitoring and troubleshooting. Newer modes of ventilation are also described, along with the relevant data from clinical trials. Complications associated with mechanical ventilation and the relevant remedial measures are also described.