Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

K. Ray Chaudhuri; Eduardo Tolosa; Anthony H. V. Schapira; Werner Poewe
>Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are known to suffer from motor symptoms of the disease, but they also experience non-motor symptoms (NMS) that are often present before diagnosis or that inevitably emerge with disease progression. The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have been extensively researched, and effective clinical tools for their assessment and treatment have been developed and are readily available. In contrast, researchers have only recently begun to focus on the NMS of Parkinson’s Disease, which are poorly recognized and inadequately treated by clinicians. The NMS of PD have a significant impact on patient quality of life and mortality and include neuropsychiatric, sleep-related, autonomic, gastrointestinal, and sensory symptoms. While some NMS can be improved with currently available treatments, others may be more refractory and will require research into novel (non-dopaminergic) drug therapies for the future.

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